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Hot and cold stamping of steels


Stamping is a category of mechanical and industrial steel working processes, but also used for other materials, united by the use of a die for transformation under pressure from presses.

This process highlights one of the main qualities of stamping steels, namely their ability to be deformed during processing, combined with the ability to maintain their strength.

Through the process of stamping, the steel can be deformed and transformed in order to obtain the most suitable forms for use with precision and accuracy. The applications are diverse and can range from the production of sheet metal, design objects, structures in the building industry and agricultural machinery to the design of mechanical components for plants and the automotive world.

There are two types of stamping: hot stamping and cold stamping. The choice depends on various factors, mainly influenced by the final use of the worked piece and the properties of the steel subjected to processing (especially the toughness).

The following influence the choice between hot or cold stamping:

  • Precision required
  • Required dimensions of the finished product
  • Processing volumes

Hot stamping

Hot stamping can be direct and indirect. In the first case, the metal is subjected to high temperatures, transferred to a cooled die and then drawn.

In the second case on the other hand a double drawing is carried out: one before heating and one final. The additional drawing of indirect hot stamping gives further formability to the material.

This process adds high strength properties to the steel and offers the opportunity to work the material even into complex forms, without clashing with the springback effect.

The processing of steel by hot stamping has numerous applications, but is especially appreciated in the production of components and mechanical parts for the automotive sector. The automotive industry indeed, necessarily requires parts with complex geometric shapes, a result which hot stamping excels at, parts which also have excellent performance in terms of resistance to high temperatures and impact. These characteristics are essential for the final product to pass all safety tests.

Cold stamping

For the production of semi-finished or finished products, cold stamping can also be used, but in particular this process is used for working steel sheets.

This treatment is chosen especially for the mass production of small steel components and parts. In addition it is the procedure that is most recommended for steel products which have different thicknesses.

In this case, unlike hot stamping, the material is pressed at room temperature, using a die that is the negative of the shape you want to obtain from the steel.

Cold stamping, as can be easily deduced, is a process that requires fewer steps and therefore greatly speeds up the production of large batches of products.

Cold stamped products are particularly required in sectors such as the electromechanical, medical and household appliance industry.

Differences between cold and hot stamping of steel

The choice between the two stamping techniques for the steel working depends on several factors, but the most important is certainly the objective, or the product to be created.

Cold stamping is the most suitable process for the production of small parts, small mass-produced products, which do not require further processing.

Hot stamping, on the other hand, is a more suitable process for defining complex geometries.

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